There are different types of artificial intelligence. Narrow AI is the most commonly known type, and operates within limited constraints. Narrow AI refers to AI systems that only perform one specific task and possess limited competencies. The next two types are general AI and self- aware AI. To better understand each type, let’s discuss the characteristics of each. Let’s start with narrow AI. Narrow AI is limited in its competencies. It is only able to recognize images, hear sounds, and read human speech.
Reactive machines are the most basic forms of artificial intelligence. They use their intelligence to respond to the world around them, without storing memories or relying on prior experiences. The most famous example of a reactive machine is Alpha Go, a computer program that beat a top Go player. Although the technology used by AlphaGo is not the most advanced, it does use a neural network to observe developments and make immediate decisions.
These machines perceive the world by performing basic tasks. They have no concept of the world and only respond to input and output. These machines are the first stages of AI. For example, an image recognition AI program will be trained using thousands of images and labels. As the AI develops, it will adjust accordingly. The goal is to make these systems more reliable and trustworthy. However, AI is not yet ready for the industrial revolution.
What is the difference between AI with limited memory and AI without limited memory? Artificial intelligence with limited memory uses its historical data and previous memories to perform tasks. It drives all AI applications, including self-driving cars, virtual voice assistants, chatbots, and more. It can’t remember everything it sees or does, but it can learn from experience. Self-driving cars are the best example of limited memory AI in action.
The basic difference between the two types of AI is their memory size. The former stores previous data while the latter stores predictions. AI with limited memory needs to store and analyze data in order to make decisions based on that data. Self-driving cars, for example, require a few hundred seconds to react to changing conditions. However, this time frame is much shorter than the average human. Self-driving vehicles are a far cry from fully autonomous vehicles, which can make critical decisions without human oversight.
Theory of mind
As AI becomes more advanced, the next step will be to build systems with “theory of mind” which can understand human thought processes. Such systems could also be used to build better human-machine teams and to build more responsive co-workers. Developing artificial intelligence systems that understand human thought processes and emotions is a key to creating machines that can better interact with people and with the world. As the field of AI advances, we are moving towards this goal.
Since 1978, the debate over whether or not the chimpanzee has a theory of mind has grown rapidly. In 1979, two researchers published the findings of their research, and the debate has gained momentum in the field of social neuroscience. Neuroimaging has provided evidence that certain brain regions are activated during theory of mind tasks. These regions include the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior superior temporal sulcus.
In principle, self-aware artificial intelligence is possible, and in the past a decade or so of research has brought us one step closer. Deep evidential regression has been credited with leveling up AI’s self-awareness. As an example, when AI is told that a prediction has a greater chance of being wrong, it will consider the reliability of the data that informed its prediction. If the data it was fed is comprehensive and accurate, its certainty will fluctuate. 99% of the time, the AI can determine this risk.
The final type of AI to be developed is self-aware. This AI is capable of identifying and interpreting internal and external states, emotions, and behaviors. It will most likely become human-level consciousness. When the Theory of Mind AI is developed, self-aware AI will emerge. It will mimic human language, actions, and behavior. But the first step is to develop the technology needed to develop self-aware AI.